COVID and Vaccines: Resources for separating the facts from misinformation.

Thank you for following (or perhaps only visiting) our content on Facebook, WordPress, Twitter, and Instagram. Below is an incomplete list of informative resources we have shared on our various platforms, as well as a few additional resources as well. We are compiling this list to help people sieve misinformation from credible information. It is a living document, and more material will be added over time. NOTE: many of these are communication tools, and there are links to sources for the information.

Of course, we recommend looking at the CDC’s and WHO’s websites for various information. These are obvious choices for go-to credible sources; however, we have included many other sources below.

Some experts on social media we recommend following.

Unbiased Science Podcast. This run by Dr. Jessica Steier, a public-health expert, and Dr. Andrea Love, an immunologist. They are the hosts of Unbiased Science, a podcast devoted to objective, critical appraisal of available evidence on health-related topics relevant to listeners’ daily lives. They have an excellent podcast, and routinely create helpful infographics. You can find their podcast (and other information) here too.

Your Local Epidemiologist. This is run by Dr. Katelyn Jetelina, who holds an MPH and PhD in Epidemiology and Biostatistics. You can also subscribe to her substack website.

Friendly Neighbor Epidemiologist. This is run by Dr. Emily Smith, an Assistant Professor of Epidemiology in the Department of Public Health at the Robbins College of Health and Human Sciences at Baylor University. She is also a devout Christian, so she shares content that promotes loving thy neighbor with science and medicine. She has an excellent Q & A and table of contents pinned at the top of her page. You can also follow her at this website.

Dear Pandemic. This is run by “those Nerdy Girls,” a volunteer team of female PhDs, MDs, and DOs curating COVID-19 and science content for the greater good. You can also follow them at their website and view an excellent library of resources categorized by topic.

Miscellaneous Other good sources here at

The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has a good section on the details of COVID and vaccines. has an excellent set of videos with doctors answering questions; the topics are easily categorized.

The Mayo Clinic

John Hopkins


Symptoms after surviving COVID

Fall 2021: Pregnant women who had COVID are more likely to have a stillbirth. A new report in CDC’s MMWR looking at more than 1.2 million deliveries found that although stillbirths were uncommon, compared with pregnant women without COVID-19, pregnant women with COVID-19 at delivery were 4x as likely to have a stillbirth in the Delta period. Certain medical conditions and indicators of severe illness, including the need for intensive care, were associated with stillbirth in deliveries to women with COVID-19. If you are pregnant or trying to conceive, get vaccinated against COVID-19 to protect yourself and your baby. (CDC).

COVID seems to cause Erectile Dysfunction.

Long-COVID symptoms.

Long-COVID in children.

The unknowns of long-COVID and how common it might be. For people who had severe COVID, between 32.6% and 87.4% of patients reported at least one symptom persisting after several months. But for those all those who merely tested positive, it seems less prevalent, bust still somewhat common, see image below

Uncertain endpoint. Chart showing how many people reported symptoms after 5 weeks.

Omicron variant

January 2022: Five reasons to not intentionally catch omicron.

January 2022: Yes, vaccines still prevent serious symptoms.

January 2022: Five things to know about Omicron. 1) Like other variants, this might be mild for some people, but it is more likely to be severe among unvaccinated people. 2) It appears this variant is more transmissible, which can increase the odds of breakthrough infections. Again, vaccines can substantially limit the severity of symptoms. 3) Boosters can limit symptoms even more. 4) Hospitals have been strained for a long time now. If hospitals are swamped with COVID patients, then this increases the risks for non-COIVID patients. 5) Take the proper precautions. Limit social activity, wear masks, get boosters, etc.

December 2021: Vaccines work against Omicron. Evidence shows that the overwhelming majority of new cases are still among the unvaccinated and that vaccines substantially lower the severity of symptoms. Boosters improve the odds even more.

November 2021: The newest variant (named Omicron)is labeled a variant of concern with several dozen mutations. It seems to have originated in S. Africa. Because it was discovered early, there is a decent chance travel policies can slow the spread. This is breaking news. It is unknown yet if the Omicron strain is more transmissible or can better evade antibodies. Vaccine researchers are already testing to see if the vaccines are effective against this strain, but we won’t have good data for a few more weeks.

Delta variant

Infographics from John Hopkins showing the timeline of infections with the Delta Variant

Recent data shows that there is a modest, but not substantial, decline in overall efficacy against infection with SARS-CoV-2 from May 2021 to July 2021. Overall efficacy against infection decreased from 92% to 80%. However, 90%+ hospitalization cases are from unvaccinated people. Vaccines still prevents severe COVID…One important note: that original overall efficacy (about 92%) was measured while mitigation efforts such as masks were more common. This recent “decline” is partially explained by many places relaxing mitigation efforts such as mask requirements.

Increasing children COVID deaths.

Banner Health debunks various myths about the Delta variant.

How corona virus infects cells, it’s life cycle, and why the Delta variant is so dangerous.

How a virus mutates and how variants emerge.

Infographic explaining findings that shows Delta appears to have a faster replication rate and faster incubation period.

Comparison of the symptoms between variants.

Clarifying misleading headlines where people thought PCR cannot identify the delta variant.

Article explaining why variants like delta become dominant.

COVID Vaccines

vaccine basics

Explaining the mRNA vaccines using high school level biology.

How mRNA vaccine work:

How was the vaccine developed quickly? Cutting red tape, funding, collaboration, lots of experience with mRNA technology, and previous research on SARS vaccines.

vaccines, Treatments, and general Info

Jan 2022: Covid vaccine reduces multiple inflammatory syndrome in children

Dec 2021: updates on anti-viral medicine.

Dec 2021: Current vaccines work against Omicron. This is an update on developing a vaccine that will work against future variants, a “pan vaccine.”

Fall 2021: Everyone is eligible for a COVID booster (CDC)

October 1, 2021: data looks promising for a COVID anti-viral pill. (This is a drug, but I’m including it in this section rather than creating a whole new section).

You can safely get your flu shot and COVID booster at the same time.

Late September: CDC broadens who is eligible for a third booster.

Late September: Pediatric cases and cases in general are on the rise in states with low vaccination rates.

In late September, the CDC issued an urgent recommendation for pregnant women to get vaccinated. The reasons and data are thoroughly explained here.

Many ICUs across the nation are overwhelmed with unvaccinated COVID patients, which poses a problem for non-COVID patients who need ICU treatment. Daniel Wilkinson, an Army veteran, is an example of a very real person who died from a treatable condition because there was no room in the ICU. Choosing not to vaccinate impacts not just ourselves, but others.

Why are immunocompromised people urged to get a third dose?

Third dose information.

If you’re young and healthy, why should you get vaccinated? From John Hopkins.

Why should the young and healthy get vaccinated?

What are legitimate medical reasons to avoid or delay getting the COVID vaccines?

I’ve shared this link in many posts, and Harvard keeps it up to date, adding more info as it comes in. Lots of vaccine information here, including efficacy, safety, who should and should not get them, etc…

FDA aims to approve COVID vaccine in early September.

Yes, you can get a COVID vaccines while pregnant.

FDA likely to approve third booster for some immuno-compromised people.

Vaccine efficacy

NOV 2021: why should you get your child vaccinated? (CDC)

Nov 2021: Fully vaccinated people are at least 3x less likely to be infected with COVID-19, according to a new CDC analysis. Among people with COVID-19, fully vaccinated people were half as likely to need emergency care or hospitalization, and 7x less likely to die from COVID-19 than unvaccinated people. (CDC).

“The FDA Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) has released the brief for the meeting on October 26th: the pediatric Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine trial data for children aged 5-11. And it’s good news”

A study of more than 400 people this October shows good signs that mix and matching booster shots increasing anti-body counts. No matter what vaccines the participants initially had (Moderna, Pfizer, J&J), getting a booster from a different vaccine still increased antibodies a lot.

J&J efficacy against delta variant, J&J boosters, and mixing vaccines: what is known, not known, and plausible.

Debunking claims that vaccines don’t prevent infection or transmission. Pedantic note: we are using the term infection to mean positive detection. A person can have a virus enter their body but, thanks to immune system memory (trained by a vaccine) the virus can be quickly thwarted.

Pfizer vaccine trials in 5 to 11-year-old children shows the vaccine is safe and effective for children. The company will turn in the results to officials soon for review and authorization.

Vaccine efficacy in people over 65.

“A recent study in New England Journal of Medicine was able to quantify the absolute risk of a variety of adverse events in people who had COVID-19 as well as people who were vaccinated against COVID-19. The contrast is quite stark. These data assessed 2.4 million vaccinated persons to evaluate the safety profile of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine and more than 240,000 people with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Even when comparing adverse events that have occurred after vaccination, such as myocarditis and pericarditis, the absolute risk of those conditions is still far greater after COVID-19 than after vaccination.”

Vaccines don’t prevent a virus from physically entering you: they train the immune system to fight faster and stronger before the virus can overwhelms you —often before symptoms arise, especially severe symptoms. Don’t be misled about breakthrough infections. Vaccine are working. COVID hospitalizations and severe cases are overwhelming from unvaccinated people. Here is another one from John Hopkins.

Do vaccines work like antibiotics and encourage new variants that can evade the immune system? No. Vaccines provide fewer opportunities for this.

A set of excellent infographics about vaccines (and other information).

Unvaccinated people are being hit the hardest in the latest surge

Infographic explaining how unvaccinated people are 2.4 times more likely to be re-infected than vaccinated people.

Article describing what a breakthrough infection is, and why a positive test doesn’t mean vaccines aren’t working. Key quote: “A “breakthrough” simply means that a vaccinated person has tested positive for the disease-causing agent, not that they will become ill or transmit the infection to someone else. Most vaccinated people who are infected do not have symptoms, and those that do tend to have mild illness. Even with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, the vaccines show good protection against symptomatic disease and death. Nationally, as of August 2, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that more than 164 million people have been fully vaccinated, just under half of the total population. Yet 97 percent of those who are being hospitalized for COVID-19 are unvaccinated.”

An infographic showing a hospital’s data that matches the larger trend: the number of cases, severe cases, and deaths of COVID are overwhelmingly from the nonvaccinated population.

Video of a medical professional talking about the general cost-benefits.

Infographics showing breakthrough infections are much, much less common than infections among the nonvaccinated, and they typically much more mild; almost no deaths among vaccinated.

Are vaccinated people just as contagious with the delta variant as unvaccinated people? No. Vaccines are not a magic barrier, viruses can still get in get to work. Vaccines provide stronger faster response, often before symptoms even arise. Even though a vaccinated person can potentially transmit the disease, an unvaccinated person who is infected is much more contagious.

Q and A about adolescent vaccines.

Infographic vaccinated and unvaccinated, and clarifying the highly misleading headlines saying “75% of COVID-19 patients were vaccinated,” which does not factor in the hopital rate of vaccinated and unvaccinated populations.

Side effects

Nov 2021 (CDC): Children may have some side effects such as a sore arm or headache. These are normal signs that their body is building protection against COVID-19. The side effects typically go away in 1–2 days and are similar to the side effects in other childhood vaccines.

How are possible side effects tracked and monitored?

Anti-vaxers abuse the precautionary principle in their rhetoric to spread vaccine-hesitant attitudes. (i.e., a vaccine hesitant person is not necessarily an anti-vaxer, but in many cases, that person fell victim to misleading rhetoric seeded by antivax talking heads). But how do anti-vaxers abuse this principle? The Logic of Science explains in great detail here.

A new recent study looked at 23 serious adverse events among 6.2 million people (11.8 million doses). It doesn’t appear the events are linked to the vaccines, but to be fair, the events are so exceedingly rare for some of these conditions. But again, the key take away is that the risk is overwhelmingly higher for COVID. Skeptical Raptor explains this study in more detail here.

Long-term side effects? The Logic of Science is a science communicator that used simple language but goes into depth. You can read why long- term effects are very unlikely here

Summary: TL;DR

  1. mRNA vaccines have been being studied for over a decade (including human trials).
  2. Current COVID vaccines have been extremely well studied, with sample sizes of hundreds of thousands of people, and studies have been compiled into large meta-analyses/systematic reviews. Thus, the short-term risks of the vaccines are extremely well-documented, and the benefits outweigh the risks. The only “unknown” is about long-term effects; however…
  3. No vaccine has ever caused the type of widespread, serious side effect years down the road that everyone is afraid of.
    1. Nearly all side effects occur shortly after vaccination (see #2).
    2. The only example of a sided effect that showed up months later appear within a year (whereas we’ve been using COVID vaccines for over a year) and was rare. The vaccine benefits still outweighed the risks.
  4. Vaccines rarely cause long-term (future) side effects because they use low doses over a short time.
    1. Vaccines simply train your immune system.
    2. Vaccines are quickly removed from the body.
    3. Most vaccine components were well-studied, and their safety is known.
    4. mRNA:
      1. mRNA does not alter your DNA.
      2. mRNA is very quickly broken down and removed.
      3. mRNA in vaccines cannot make your body produce entire viruses.
      4. You are constantly exposed to mRNA from viruses (e.g., from colds)
      5. If you catch COVID, your cells will use viral mRNA to make proteins just like they do from the vaccine, but…
        1. Your cells will make entire viruses, not just a single protein.
        2. You will be exposed to far higher levels of mRNA.
    5. Side effects from immune stimulation will usually happen right away and will usually be worse from actual infection with COVID.
  5. A demand for long-term studies is meaningless unless you can justify why a particular length of time is needed.
    1. No matter how long something has been studied, it is always technically possible that an effect won’t show up until slightly after the length of that study.
    2. This is true for all medications, foods, minerals, vitamins, etc., yet we don’t fear most of them.
    3. Therefore, you must provide actual evidence or reasoning to think that a futre side-effect is actually likely.
  6. Focusing on a highly-unlikely, unknown, hypothetical risk from the vaccine while downplaying the very real and serious risk from COVID is bad risk assessment.
  7. Fears over unknown long-term effects of the vaccines are baseless. The burden of proof is on anyone claiming that the vaccines are dangerous.

Safety of COVID vaccines from the CDC, including long term effects being unlikely.

Article from National Geographic on why long term side effects from COVID vaccines are very unlikely

Dr. Risa Hoshino explains why it is woefully unlikely for a vaccine to cause health problems years later in this simple infogrpahic.

Why long term side effect are unlikely, as explained in this infographic by Chicagos Department of Health

Possible side effects of COVID vaccines

Potential side effects and safety of the vaccines from Harvard, including how this was determined, and misconceptions, and more.

Vaccine: miscellaneous

With effective vaccines available, 72% of the two largest insurers in each state and DC (102 health plans) are no longer waiving costs associated with treating COVID-19, and another 10% of plans are phasing out waivers by the end of October.

Estimated cost of COVID hospitalization (pre-vaccine era, and if you didn’t get a waiver).

How does a pandemic end? Vaccines play a critical role.

How other epidemics/pandemics were avoided.

General Debunking

Unbiased Science Podcast debunks the “recent article written by Peter McCullough in Robert F Kennedy Jr’s anti-vaccine organization Children’s Health Defense [which] attempted to take good information and spin it to fit their anti-vaccination agenda.”

Anti-vaxers abuse the precautionary principle in their rhetoric to spread vaccine-hesitant attitudes. (i.e., a vaccine hesitant person is not necessarily an anti-vaxer, but in many cases, that person fell victim to misleading rhetoric seeded by antivax talking heads). But how do anti-vaxers abuse this principle? The Logic of Science explains in great detail here.

We hy are you pushing vaccines instead of a healthy lifestyle? We aren’t.

Injecting a substance doesn’t make it inherently more harmful than ingestion.

A good analogy explaining the risks versus the benefits.

The movie I am legend is a cautionary tale against vaccines.

COVID isn’t dangerous myth.

The vaccine was not rushed, yes evidence shows it works, etc.

General description of the types of fallacies used in vaccine misconceptions. It would be better if sources for each were provided, but the point was to identify the fallacies. Sources that correct the misinformation are provided throughout the other posts. To see the other pics.

Despite initial concerns, AstraZeneca is not associated with blood clots.

Debunking the video of an alleged physician at an Indiana school board meeting. and here is another one

Debunking “plandemic”

Debunking ivermectin.

Some initial research hinted that Hydroxychloroquine *might* be effective against COVID. The drug was thoroughly tested, and it was found not to be an effective treatment. See the link for more details.

“The pandemic is fake.” If that was true, then there would be no excess mortality. As we posted several times before, there are several hundred thousand more deaths than we would typically expect. As an example, during January 26, 2020–February 27, 2021, an estimated 545,600–660,200 more persons than expected died in the United States.” The link is article, but you can see this same trend continue on their tracker.


January 2022: Cannabis and COVID. “A recent study from Oregon State University speculates that select cannabis/hemp-derived compounds may bind the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and prevent its entry into human epithelial cells. While this study has garnered quite a bit of media attention, it is unlikely that smoking weed or consuming cannabis edibles is going to protect you from COVID-19”

September 16, 2021. Many ICU’s are near capacity across the US, making it harder to treat other serious conditions. 1 in 4 ICUs are reporting “worrisome bed occupancy” levels, which is up from 1 in 10 in June.

“What counts as being exposed?” Those nerdy girls at Dear Pandemic answer questions about when to test or just self-monitor under different “exposure” scenarios.

The seven stages of severe COVID

An article about a personal account of a former anti-vaxxer, “I was an anti-vaxer, but this year I changed my mind.” This article is from the Huffington Post. As a general rule of thumb, I avoid this news source out concerns of bias and click bait, but this article, at least, seems to pass muster, so I will recommend it.

How the CDC classifies variants:

A new study looks at the rising cases of COVID among young adults. To learn more, read here:

Populist antitax talking heads have died from COVID. Marc Bernier (aka “Mr. Anti-Vax”) was a radio host who recently passed away from COVID 19…one of many talking heads that died from this. In this post, I discuss lessons we should take from this. But Bernier is not the only example. Another was Phil Valentine. He was not a fan of the vaccines, but before his death urged fans to vaccinated. Another example is the antivaxxer radio host Dick Farrel,

Information about pediatric cases.

Pope Francis urges people to get COVID vaccines.

Researchers found at least 2 million children have lost a parent or grandparent caregiver to COVID-19.

1 Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s